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Denominations of Christendom: A Complete Guide


Ever wondered why there are so many different branches and groups within Christianity? Well, welcome to the fascinating world of denominations! These diverse factions, with their own unique beliefs and practices, make up what we call the denominations of Christendom. From the early days of the first church to the present day, Christianity has evolved and branched out in countless ways. Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are just a few examples of denominational churches among many. Each denomination brings its own take on interpreting the Bible and understanding the teachings of Christ. It’s like a guidebook to exploring Christianity’s rich tapestry! So let’s dive in and discover how these denominations have shaped our understanding of faith throughout history, both for religious families and individual christians.

Main Branches of Christianity: Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox

Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination, with a hierarchical structure centered around the Pope in Rome. The Roman Catholics trace their roots back to the time of Jesus Christ and claim to be the continuation of the early Christian community founded by him. With over 1.3 billion followers worldwide, Catholicism plays a significant role in shaping Christian faith and practice, alongside Protestant Christianity and other religions.

Protestantism emerged from the 16th-century Reformation when Martin Luther, a prominent figure in Lutheranism, challenged practices and beliefs within the Catholic Church. This movement led to a division within Christianity, resulting in numerous denominations, including Lutherans and Pentecostals, that emphasize personal faith and biblical authority. Protestants believe in salvation through faith alone and reject traditional Catholic teachings such as purgatory or papal infallibility.

Eastern Orthodoxy, also known as the Eastern Orthodox Church, follows apostolic traditions rooted in early Christianity and has separate autocephalous churches led by patriarchs or bishops. The Eastern Orthodox Church places great importance on liturgical worship, icons, and mysticism. It shares many similarities with Roman Catholicism but differs on issues like the nature of sin, original sin, and papal authority. Anglican, Catholic, and Lutheran followers may find similarities with Eastern Orthodoxy.

The Oriental Orthodox Churches, including the Armenian Apostolic Church, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Indian Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, and Syriac Orthodox Church, are distinct from both Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. These ancient churches broke away from Chalcedonian Christianity over disputes regarding Christ’s nature at ecumenical councils. The Anglican, Presbyterian, and Pentecostal denominations have different origins and beliefs.

Each branch has its own unique characteristics:


  • Led by the Pope in Rome.
  • Emphasizes sacraments such as baptism and communion.
  • The Presbyterian theology believes in the concept of purgatory as a state of purification before entering heaven, emphasizing holiness and the significance of baptism.
  • Recognizes saints who can intercede for believers.
  • Includes various orders like Franciscans or Jesuits.


  • Diverse denominations like Lutheranism, Anglicanism, Methodism, and Baptist.
  • Emphasizes the authority of the Bible as the sole source of religious guidance in the context of the christian faith and theology within the evangelical christian tradition.
  • Believes in salvation through faith alone.
  • The Reformed Church, a branch of Protestant Christianity, rejects certain Catholic practices like the veneration of saints or papal authority.
  • Encourages individual interpretation of scripture.

Eastern Orthodoxy

  • Led by patriarchs or bishops in different regions, such as the eastern catholic and apostolic church, there are various christian denominations, including Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, and catholic churches.
  • Places great importance on liturgy and sacraments.
  • Uses icons as visual representations of spiritual truths.
  • Practices mysticism and contemplative prayer.
  • The apostolic church, orthodox churches, and the catholic church all have a strong sense of tradition and continuity with early Christianity. Christians value this deep connection to their historical roots.

Protestant Reformation (16th century)

The Protestant Reformation, a religious movement in the 16th century, was led by Martin Luther and others to reform practices within Catholicism. This event resulted in the formation of new denominations like the Reformed Church, Lutheran Church, and Pentecostal, which rejected papal authority and emphasized individual interpretation of Scripture.

One of the key aspects of the Protestant Reformation was its rejection of various practices and beliefs held by the Catholic Church at the time. Martin Luther, a German monk, challenged the sale of indulgences, which were essentially pardons for sins that could be purchased from the church. He believed that salvation should be based on faith alone, rather than on works or monetary contributions. This emphasis on faith became a central tenet of Lutheran theology and reformed Christian churches. Christians today continue to uphold this belief in faith-based salvation.

The Reformation had profound impacts on social, political, and cultural aspects across Europe. It sparked debates about religious authority within the Protestantism movement and led to conflicts between different factions within the Reformed Church. As new ideas spread through printed materials such as Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, people began to question long-held beliefs and seek alternative forms of worship in the Lutheran Church.

The Protestant Reformation gave rise to numerous Protestant denominations, including Protestantism, which encompasses Lutheranism, Presbyterianism, and Anabaptists. Each denomination developed its own distinct theology and practices while sharing a common rejection of papal authority. Today, these denominations are part of the Reformed Church, Pentecostal movement, and Christian Church.

Lutheranism, a branch of Protestantism, emerged as one of the earliest and most influential branches of Protestant Christianity. Its followers, known as Christians, embraced Luther’s teachings on justification by faith alone and rejected many traditional Catholic rituals. The Lutheran tradition continues to have a significant presence in Germany and other parts of Europe, particularly in the Reformed Church. This branch of Christianity is known for its distinct theology.

Another important branch that arose from the Reformation is Presbyterianism, a reformed church denomination within protestantism. This christian denomination emphasizes governance by elected elders rather than hierarchical structures found in Catholicism. Presbyterians believe in predestination, a key belief within the protestant tradition.

Anabaptists were another group that emerged during this period. They rejected infant baptism and instead advocated for adult baptism based on personal faith. Anabaptists faced persecution from both Catholics and other Protestants, including pentecostal and presbyterian Christians, due to their radical beliefs, but their ideas influenced subsequent movements such as the Baptist tradition.

The Protestant Reformation, led by reformed and presbyterian Christians, fundamentally changed the religious landscape of Europe and set the stage for future developments in Christianity. It challenged the established authorities of the Catholic Church, encouraged individual interpretation of Scripture, and paved the way for a more diverse range of beliefs within Christianity.

Anglican Communion and Western Christianity

The Anglican Communion, an integral part of Western Christianity, traces its origins back to the 16th century when King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. This break was primarily motivated by personal and political reasons rather than theological disagreements. Despite the separation, the Anglican Church retained some Catholic traditions, creating a unique blend of practices that set it apart from other Protestant denominations like Lutheran, Baptist, and Methodist churches.

One of the defining characteristics of Anglicanism is its broad range of theological perspectives within its member churches worldwide, including evangelical, Lutheran, Baptist, and Catholic beliefs. Unlike many other Christian traditions that adhere to a specific doctrinal framework, Anglicans encompass a diverse spectrum of beliefs on various theological issues. This diversity allows for individual autonomy and interpretation while maintaining a sense of unity within the communion.

Western Christianity, including churches such as Roman Catholic, evangelical, Lutheran, and Orthodox, refers to Christian traditions primarily found in Western Europe and influenced by Roman culture. The Roman Catholic Church is the most prominent example of Western Christianity, but Protestantism and Anglicanism are also part of this tradition.

While Western Christianity, including Catholic, Anglican, Presbyterian, and Lutheran churches, shares common roots with Eastern Orthodoxy, there are distinct differences in both theology and practice between these two branches. For instance, Western Christian churches have historically emphasized the authority of the Pope as the head of the church, whereas Eastern Orthodox churches operate under a different ecclesiastical structure.

In addition to Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox churches, other denominations fall under the umbrella term “Western Christianity.” These include various Protestant denominations like Lutheranism, Presbyterianism, Methodism, Baptists, and more. Each denomination within this category has its own unique beliefs and practices but shares certain overarching characteristics derived from their shared historical context.

The concept of communion holds significant importance in both Western Christianity as a whole and specifically within the Anglican, Catholic, Lutheran, and Orthodox churches. Communion refers to partaking in the Eucharist or Holy Communion—an act symbolizing the sharing of bread and wine in remembrance of Jesus’ Last Supper. This sacrament is central to Christian worship, fostering a sense of unity among believers in these churches.

Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements

Pentecostalism is a vibrant and dynamic branch of Christianity that emerged in the early 20th century. It places a strong emphasis on spiritual gifts, particularly those mentioned in Acts 2:4, such as speaking in tongues, healing, prophecy, and more. This movement believes that these gifts are evidence of the presence of the Holy Spirit in the lives of believers in evangelical, baptist, and presbyterian churches.

The roots of Pentecostalism can be traced back to the holiness movement of the late 19th century. Many early Pentecostals were part of evangelical, holiness, baptist, presbyterian, and catholic churches before they experienced what they believed to be a “second baptism” with the Holy Spirit. This experience led them to form separate denominations or join existing ones with a newfound emphasis on charismatic practices in lutheran churches.

Unlike Pentecostalism, charismatic movements can be found within various Christian denominations such as evangelical, Lutheran, catholic, and orthodox. Charismatic Christians share similar beliefs and practices as Pentecostals but remain part of their respective denominational structures. This means that you can find charismatic individuals or groups within Baptist churches, Methodist congregations, Free Churches, and more.

Both Pentecostalism and charismatic movements, which are part of evangelical Christian denominations, place great importance on direct experiences with God through the Holy Spirit. They believe that all believers within the Christian church have access to spiritual gifts and should actively seek them through prayer and worship services. These movements highlight personal encounters with God as transformative experiences that bring individuals closer to Him, including those within the Baptist denomination.

Local evangelical, baptist, lutheran, and christian churches play a central role in both pentecostal and charismatic expressions of faith. While there are larger apostolic movements and parachurch organizations associated with these beliefs, it is at the grassroots level where most believers experience their faith on a day-to-day basis. Worship services in pentecostal and charismatic churches often feature lively music, passionate preaching, and an atmosphere conducive to spontaneous expressions of devotion.

The origins of pentecostalism can be traced back to the early 20th century, during a period known as the Second Great Awakening. It was during this time that many Christians across evangelical, baptist, and lutheran churches experienced a renewed focus on personal holiness and the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives. One notable influence on pentecostalism was the Plymouth Brethren movement, which emphasized the authority of Scripture and the priesthood of all believers.

Nontrinitarian Beliefs and Restorationism

Nontrinitarian beliefs reject the traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity, viewing Jesus and God as separate entities. These beliefs challenge the notion that God is a single being consisting of three distinct persons: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Instead, nontrinitarians emphasize the individuality of Jesus and God, considering them as separate beings with unique roles. This perspective contrasts with the teachings of the Baptist, Orthodox Church, Lutheran, and Catholic Church.

Restorationism refers to movements within the reformed, orthodox church that seek to restore Christianity to its original form by rejecting later developments and traditions. These evangelical movements aim to return to what they perceive as the pure teachings of primitive Christianity before it became influenced by external factors. Restorationists believe in revisiting early Christian practices and doctrines in order to reestablish a more authentic faith, particularly within the lutheran community.

One prominent example of a nontrinitarian denomination is Jehovah’s Witnesses, who are not part of the christian church. Their theology differs from baptist and evangelical churches, as they believe that Jesus is not equal to God but rather God’s first creation. They also believe that only a limited number of believers will be resurrected to live eternally in heaven while others will enjoy paradise on Earth after Armageddon.

Unitarians are another group within Christendom who reject Trinitarian beliefs. Unitarianism is a Christian denomination that emphasizes monotheism, focusing on the belief in one God rather than a triune deity. They see Jesus as a prophet or teacher rather than divine, emphasizing his moral teachings over his divinity or resurrection. Unitarianism is distinct from Baptist, Evangelical, and Orthodox Church denominations.

Christadelphians, a nontrinitarian Christian denomination, also fall under the umbrella of evangelical churches. They hold similar beliefs regarding Jesus’ nature as Jehovah’s Witnesses but differ in their understanding of salvation. Christadelphians, like other Baptist churches, believe that salvation comes through faith in Christ and adherence to biblical principles rather than through inherited sin or atonement for sins committed.

These nontrinitarian Christian denominations, such as Baptist churches, challenge the traditional understanding of God’s nature found in mainstream Trinitarian doctrine like the Nicene Creed. They emphasize the importance of personal interpretation and understanding of Scripture, diverging from the teachings of the Catholic Church.

In a nutshell, nontrinitarian beliefs within denominations of Christendom, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, Unitarians, and Christadelphians, reject the concept of the Trinity. These movements encourage believers in baptist and evangelical churches to critically analyze biblical teachings and challenge established orthodox doctrines in favor of a more personalized interpretation. Restorationism seeks to restore Christianity to its original form by rejecting later developments in theology and doctrine.

Latter Day Saint Denominations and the Latter Day Saint Movement

The Latter Day Saint movement, which includes various denominations such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and Community of Christ (formerly Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), emerged in the early 19th century in the United States. Led by Joseph Smith, this Christian religious movement has had a significant impact on churches, particularly Baptist and Catholic churches.

These latter day saint denominations, such as the Baptist and Catholic Church, share a belief in additional scriptures, such as the Book of Mormon, alongside the Bible. This distinctive feature sets them apart from other Christian churches. The Book of Mormon is considered by adherents to be an ancient record translated by Joseph Smith through divine guidance.

The origins of the evangelical movement can be traced back to Joseph Smith’s experiences in upstate New York during a period characterized by religious fervor known as the Second Great Awakening. It was during this time that Smith claimed to have received visions and revelations from God, leading to the establishment of what would become known as the Church of Christ, a baptist Christian church.

Over time, differing interpretations and disagreements within the early churches, including Baptist, Catholic, and Orthodox, led to schisms and the formation of various organizations and bodies within the latter day saint movement. One significant split occurred after Joseph Smith’s death in 1844 when Brigham Young led a group westward, eventually settling in Utah and establishing The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Today, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is one of the most well-known christian denominations, alongside baptist and catholic churches, with millions of members worldwide. It is organized under a hierarchical structure with apostles serving as key leaders within the church. These apostles are believed to hold authority similar to those mentioned in biblical accounts.

Another notable christian denomination within the latter day saint movement is the Community of Christ. Formerly known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, it has its roots in divergent beliefs regarding succession after Joseph Smith’s death. The Community of Christ places a strong emphasis on social justice and inclusivity, seeking to engage with modern times while maintaining a connection to its past. It is one of the many churches that fall under the christian umbrella, alongside baptist and catholic denominations.

In addition to these two prominent denominations, the Catholic Church and the Baptist Church, there are several other churches that have emerged throughout history. These include smaller independent organizations and offshoots from the main bodies, such as the Orthodox Church. While they may differ in their interpretations of doctrine and practices, they all trace their origins back to Joseph Smith’s early revelations.

It is worth noting that the Latter Day Saint movement has had its fair share of famous members throughout history, including politicians like Mitt Romney and entertainers such as Donny Osmond. The influence of this religious tradition extends beyond its circles, encompassing churches such as Baptist, Orthodox, and the Catholic Church.


Now that you have a better understanding of the denominations of Christendom, including Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox churches, you can navigate the diverse landscape of Christian beliefs with more confidence. Remember, each branch has its own unique traditions and practices, including the Baptist denomination.

The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century played a significant role in shaping Christianity as we know it today. It led to the emergence of various Protestant denominations, alongside the existing churches of Catholic and Orthodox, that prioritize individual interpretation of scripture and emphasize salvation through faith alone.

In Western Christianity, the Anglican Communion holds a prominent position among churches. It represents a blend of Catholic and Protestant elements, providing a middle ground for many believers, including those who identify as orthodox.

The Pentecostal and Charismatic movements have brought renewed emphasis on spiritual gifts and experiences within certain Christian communities, including churches of the Catholic and Orthodox traditions. These movements emphasize personal encounters with the Holy Spirit and vibrant worship styles.

It’s also important to note that some Christian groups, such as the orthodox and catholic churches, hold nontrinitarian beliefs and follow restorationist principles. They reject the traditional doctrine of the Trinity and aim to restore what they perceive as original New Testament Christianity.

Lastly, we have Latter Day Saint denominations associated with the Latter Day Saint movement, which include churches like the Catholic, Christian, and Orthodox churches. These groups trace their origins back to Joseph Smith Jr., who claimed to have received divine revelations leading to new scriptures like The Book of Mormon.

To make informed decisions about your spiritual journey within Christendom, take time to explore these different denominations further. Attend services or engage in conversations with members from various branches of churches, such as Christian, Catholic, and Orthodox, to gain firsthand insights into their practices and beliefs.

Remember, everyone’s spiritual path is unique, so find a Christian denomination or community, such as Catholic or Orthodox churches, that resonates with your values and helps nurture your relationship with God. Don’t be afraid to ask questions or seek guidance from trusted sources as you embark on this exploration.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are all Christians Catholics?

No, not all Christians are Catholics. While Catholicism is one branch of Christianity, there are also other branches like Protestantism, Orthodoxy, and churches.

Can I switch between different Christian denominations?

Yes, you can switch between Christian denominations such as Catholic and Orthodox churches if you feel that another denomination aligns better with your beliefs and spiritual needs.

What is the largest Christian denomination in the world?

The Catholic Church, along with Orthodox churches, is currently the largest Christian denomination globally with over 1.3 billion members.

Do all Christian denominations interpret the Bible in the same way?

No, different Christian denominations, such as Catholic and Orthodox churches, may have varying interpretations of certain biblical passages or doctrines based on their theological traditions and perspectives.

Are there any non-denominational Christians?

Yes, some individuals identify as non-denominational Christians, meaning they do not affiliate with any specific denomination but follow a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. This includes individuals from the catholic, orthodox, and other churches.

Can Christians from different denominations marry each other?

Yes, Christians from different denominations, including churches such as Catholic and Orthodox, can marry each other. Interdenominational marriages are quite common and often involve mutual respect and understanding of each other’s beliefs.

How do I choose the right Christian denomination for me?

Choosing the right Christian denomination, such as churches, Catholic or Orthodox, requires self-reflection, study, and exploration. Attend services at different denominations, engage in conversations with believers from different churches, and pray for guidance to find a community that resonates with your faith journey. | Website | + posts

Ethan Davis, the founder of Jesus Salvation, transformed his life from hardship to faith after a significant encounter at age 32. After earning a Communications degree from Kansas State University, he established to help others towards salvation, sharing inspiring stories, scriptures, and prayers.